Polymer Library

Polymer Nanocomposites - January 2018

This month we're looking at Polymer Nanocomposites

The field of nanotechnology has grown hugely over the past decade and the area of polymer nanocomposite science has become of significant interest across the scientific community, particularly in the production of plastics. Polymer nanocomposites consist of a polymer or copolymer containing nanoparticles or nanofillers dispersed in the polymer matrix. Due to their size polymer nanocomposites possess numerous technological advantages such as enhanced strength, optical, electrical, dielectric and thermal properties, amongst many more. Because of their ability to be used in various forms, such as blends, foams and reinforced structures, polymer nanocomposites harbour numerous commercial applications ranging from medical and biomedical products, packaging applications to electronic devices and automotive designs to name but a few.

Why not read some of the latest literature in this area? There is a selection of abstracts from the Polymer Library on this subject below.

Abstracts

These abstracts were highlighted in the January 2018 Newsletter and found in the Polymer Library.

Click on the 7-digit accession numbers to find out about ordering a copyright-cleared full text copy of the items shown.

1272070 - Nanocomposites of polymeric biomaterials containing carbonate groups: an overview
The modification of biomaterials using nanoadditives can lead to the development of novel materials for a wide variety of biomedical applications such as drug administration systems, tissue engineering, bioresistance coatings, and biomedical instruments. Moreover, a further improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of aforementioned biomaterials while maintaining their dimensional stability is a goal of major scientific researches. Aliphatic polycarbonates (APCs) containing carbonate groups such as poly(trimethylene carbonate), poly(propylene carbonate), poly(ethylene carbonate), poly(dimethyl trimethylene carbonate), etc., have become much more interesting compared to other biodegradable materials due to their unique physical and chemical properties. This review presents the effect of applying different kinds of nanoparticles (NPs) on the mechanical, thermal, and viscoelastic properties as well as dimensional stability and biocompatibility of APCs. The dispersion process of nanofillers within polymer matrices has been divided into two groups, solution and melt mixing techniques. Moreover, synthesis procedures of APC loaded NPs for drug delivery systems and electrospinning of nanofibre mats have also been reviewed. In order to clarify the effect of NPs on the overall characteristics of the APC biomaterials, the detailed mechanism of improving process have been extensively discussed. (161 ref)
Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 302, No.10, 2017, paper 1700042, pp.22, ISSN: 1438-7492
Iman Taraghi; Paszkiewicz S; Grebowicz J; Abdolhossein Fereidoon; Zbigniew Roslaniec

1272872 - Industrial-graded epoxy nanocomposites with mechanically dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes: static and damping properties (OPEN ACCESS - FREE ACCESS TO FULL TEXT)
The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young's modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices. 43 Refs.
Materials, 10, No.10, Oct. 2017, paper 1222, pp.13, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma10101222
Giovannelli A; Di Maio D; Scarpa F

1273098 - A self-healable and tough nanocomposite hydrogel crosslinked by novel ultrasmall aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles
Self-healing hydrogels like tissues or organs which are repaired automatically in response to damage show great promise. However, it remains a challenge to develop novel functional nanoparticles as crosslinkers to prepare tough and self-healing nanocomposite hydrogels. Here, we report the preparation of water-soluble ultrasmall aluminium hydroxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3 nm through a simple sol-gel method. Furthermore, a tough nanocomposite hydrogel is prepared by the in situ copolymerisation of acylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulphonic acid in the presence of aluminium hydroxide nanoparticles. The resulting hydrogels exhibit high compressive strength of 18.9 MPa and an elongation at break of ~2100%. Importantly, the Al-NC gel displayed a high self-healing efficiency of 86% without any external stimulus at room temperature. Moreover, we found an interesting multi-hierarchical porous morphology of the Al-NC gel depending on the contents of the aluminium hydroxide nanoparticles. The tough nanocomposite hydrogel might provide a novel promising avenue for designing advanced self-healable soft materials for various biomedical applications. (59 ref)
Nanoscale, 9, No.40, 2017, p.15470-15476, ISSN: 2040-3364, DOI: 10.1039/c7nr04722c
Haoyang Jiang; Gongzheng Zhang; Feibo Li; Yaqian Zhang; Yu Lei; Yanhong Xia; Xianghu Jin; Xianqi Feng; Huanjun Li

1273103 - Electrically and thermally conductive underwater acoustically absorptive graphene/rubber nanocomposites for multifunctional applications
Graphene is ideal filler in nanocomposites due to its unique mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. However, it is challenging to uniformly distribute the large fraction of graphene fillers into a polymer matrix because graphene is not easily functionalised. We report a novel method to introduce a large fraction of graphene into a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix. The obtained graphene/rubber nanocomposites were mechanically enhanced, acoustically absorptive under water, and electrically and thermally conductive. The Young's modulus of the nanocomposites was enhanced by over 30 times over that for rubber. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was <=219 S m^-1 with 15% volume fraction of graphene content, and exhibited remarkable electromagnetic shielding efficiency of 45 dB at 8-12 GHz. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites was <=2.922 W m^-1 k^-1, which was superior to the values of thermally conductive silicone rubber thermal interface materials. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited excellent underwater sound absorption (average absorption coefficient >0.8 at 6-30 kHz). Notably, the absorption performance of graphene/SBR nanocomposites increased with increasing water pressure. These multifunctional graphene/SBR nanocomposites have promising applications in electronics, thermal management and marine engineering. (55 ref)
Nanoscale, 9, No.38, 2017, p.14476-14485, ISSN: 2040-3364, DOI: 10.1039/c7nr05189a
Ying Li; Fan Xu; Zaishan Lin; Xianxian Sun; Qingyu Peng; Ye Yuan; Shasha Wang; Zhiyu Yang; Xiaodong He; Yibin Li

1270958 - A dual-induced self-expandable stent based on biodegradable shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites (PCLAU/Fe3O4) triggered around body temperature
Concerning the occurrence of in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis of stent implantation with balloon angioplasty, a dual-induced self-expandable stent based on biodegradable shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites (PCLAU/Fe3O4) was developed. The stent could maintain its temporary shape at body temperature for a certain period of time while it was able to recover to its permanent shape at the temperature a little above body temperature (around 40 deg C) in both a water bath and an alternating magnetic field. The trigger temperature and remote local heating ensured enough operation time and harmless activation without heating the body tissue. The nanocomposites had high fixing ratios above 99% and recovery ratios above 82% at both 37 and 40 deg C. Cytotoxicity and in vitro degradation showed the nanocomposites had good biocompatibility and biodegradability. The PCLAU/Fe3O4 nanocomposites with dual-responsive shape memory effects, desirable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability show great potential for vascular stents. (57 ref)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 135, No.3, 2018, paper 45686, pp.10, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/app.45686
Shu-Ying Gu; Kun Chang; Sheng-Peng Jin

1269701 - Microwave responsive epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanomaterials of different dimensions
This study fabricated nanocomposites consisting of epoxy-based shape memory polymer (ESMP) matrix and carbon nanofillers. The nanofillers include zero-dimensional carbon black, one-dimensional multiwalled carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanoplatelets, and three-dimensional (3D) functionalised graphene sheets, which are all efficient microwave-absorbing materials that can transform microwaves into heat energy. As a result, the temperatures of the nanocomposites increased more rapidly than pristine ESMP in microwaves. The functionalised graphene sheets were found to transform the microwaves into heat more efficiently than the other nanofillers. Possible microwave propagation paths in the nanocomposites were proposed. Moreover, the nanocomposites displayed significantly higher mechanical strengths than pristine ESMP. The low cost and strong nanocomposites with fast microwave responses may be applied as actuators or deployable devices in medical treatments. (46 ref)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 135, No.2, 2018, paper 45676, pp.10, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/app.45676
Lei Chen; Yanju Liu; Jinsong Leng

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