Polymer Library

Tyres - September 2017

This month we're looking at Tyres.

Tyres have been a key part of Smithers Rapra's remit for nearly a hundred years now, with experts based in both the UK and the US working alongside the tyre industry for decades.

Tyre technology is now more complex than ever, requiring several types of rubber to make just one tyre in order to get the performance required, but that is just one of the challenges facing the tyre industry. According to a Market Report by Smithers Rapra, global tyre manufacturing output was estimated to be over 17 million tonnes in 2016, and is growing nearly 4% per year through 2022. They're so commonplace that they pose a significant challenge when they reach the end of their useful life with one of the biggest challenges in waste planning today being how to dispose of them in a safe, inexpensive and, above all, sustainable way.

We can help you stay up-to-date with the latest technologies and developments in the tyre industry.

Why not read some of the latest literature in this area? There is a selection of abstracts from the Polymer Library on this subject below.


These abstracts were highlighted in the September Newsletter and found in the Polymer Library.

Click on the 7-digit accession numbers to find out about ordering a copyright-cleared full text copy of the items shown.

1253223 - Off-the-road tyres spur oil innovation
In Australia, 79.4% of off-the-road tyres are left on site as there are no means of recycling them. Green Distillation Technologies was convinced that there must be a better way to deal with this sizeable waste stream and so started working on a novel recycling process for ELTs, duly succeeding in producing a sustainable oil that it terms a 'world breakthrough'. According to the company, recycling a 10kg car tyre will yield 4kg of carbon, 1.5kg of steel and 4 litres of oil, while a 70kg truck tyre gives up to 28kg of carbon, 11kg of steel and 28 litres of oil. In the case of a giant 7-tonne oversize tyre, the oil yield can be as substantial as 3000 litres. Rigorous tests at Queensland University of Technology have confirmed that the oil, when blended with diesel in relatively small percentages (10-20%), results in a fuel that reduces emissions and entails no loss of engine performance.
Recycling International, no. 1, 2017, p.43, ISSN: 1387-8700
Linnenkoper K

1258613 - Optimization of an optical test bench for tire properties measurement and tread defects characterization (OPEN ACCESS - FREE ACCESS TO FULL TEXT)
Tire characteristics and behaviour are of great importance in vehicle dynamics since the forces transmitted in the tyre-road contact are the main contributors to global vehicle performance. Several research groups have focused on the study and modelling of tyres. Some of the most important factors that need to be known are tread characteristics and pressure distribution in the tyre-ground contact patch. In this work, a test bench has been used to adequately determine the aforementioned factors. The measurement principle of the test bench is the frustration of total internal reflection (FTIR) of light. It makes use of a laterally illuminated glass on which the tyre leans. An interposed plastic interface between them causes the reflection of light. Finally, a video camera captures the bright image formed through the glass. The brightness level in each pixel of the image is related to existing normal pressure. A study of the parameters that affect the test bench calibration such as type of interface material used, diffuse light, hysteresis, creep and transverse light absorption is performed. Experimental tests are conducted to relate tyre inflation pressure and camber angle to the pressure distribution. Furthermore, the test bench is used to detect and evaluate the influence of defects in the tyre on the contact pressures. 20 Refs.
Sensors, 17, No.4, Apr. 2017, paper 707, pp.26, ISSN: 1424-8220, DOI: 10.3390/s17040707
Aguilar J J C; Carrillo J A C; Fernandez A J G; Pozo S P

1260752 - Solving tyre design flaw
Since the introduction of radial tyres beginning in the 1970s approximately 45 million tyres have been recalled in the US, mostly due to poor adhesion causing delamination and subsequently catastrophic failures with the danger of fatal accidents. Because of dynamic stress and abrupt load changes, tyres are subject to extreme loads, and adhesive bonding is not the optimum joining system for tyre manufacturing. Work by the former Hoechst AG on optimising tyre stability led to a proposed solution, in that the critical adhesive bonding of the actual design is secured by interlocking mechanical fastening. Based on this 3D-armouring network structure, prototypes of the innovative "Net-tyre" were developed. The Net-tyre has a 3D-network structure as reinforcement within the tread. The structure follows the contour of the tread. The network consists of a new textile fabric with hexagonal open cells, permeated by rubber. The functional part of the rubber is interlocked with the structural part of 3D reinforcement and prevents risks of tread separation and tyre blow-out.
Tyre Asia, 8, No.2, Apr.-May 2017, p.68-70
Disselbeck D

1261581 - Design and static analysis of airless tyre to reduce deformation (OPEN ACCESS - FREE ACCESS TO FULL TEXT)
In this work a model of an air less tyre is introduced with a replacement of natural rubber materials in place of synthetic rubber in tread and polyester in place of nylon in carcass. The construction and material study of various types of air less tyre is done by comparing with pneumatic tyre. A brief structural study has been done on spokes of airless tyre and analysed by ANSYS software. Analysis has been carried out on various structures like honey comb, Spokes, triangular and diamond with an applied load of 1200N. Comparison study has been carried out among various structures with different materials and it study shows that tyre with diamond structure with synthetic materials gives less deformation compared to other structure. 10 Refs.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 197, 2017, paper 012042, pp.8, ISSN: 1757-899X, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/755/1/011001
Nibin Jacob Mathew; Dillip Kumar Sahoo; Mithun Chakravarthy E

1263813 - Future of tyre manufacturing
Tyre manufacturing is a complex business. The production process is a challenging mix of continuous processes, such as extrusion and calendering, and batch processes, such as mixing, curing and tyre building. The next stage in development of tyre factories, it is claimed, will be towards more compact, more flexible operations. Mixing, calendaring and probably extrusions will continue to be carried out in large, highly productive and centralised facilities. The building and curing operations can be set up relatively quickly and in fairly standard, single-storey light industrial buildings. Tyre makers could set up a scalable, highly-automated tyre factory adjacent to that of a vehicle maker. Once the MES systems are linked, the tyre factory simply supplies the vehicle factory with appropriate tyres for its needs. When orders are slow, the factory can produce for the replacement market, but when the car factory is working at full capacity, the tyre factory can be matched to the potential demand.
Tyre Asia, 8, No.3, June-July 2017, p.22/118
Shaw D

1263835 - 100% guayule tire
A major milestone has been achieved by Cooper Tire on the Biomass Research and Development Initiative, a five-year 6.9m US dollars grant from the USDA to develop guayule as an alternative natural rubber source. Having successfully built and tested tyres made with several guayule components, Cooper is now in the final stages of analysing a 100% guayule-based tyre - and has reported positive results. The company has found that with the correct formulation, guayule rubber performs the same as Hevea-based rubber, and that it processes as well or even better.
Tire Technology International, July 2017, p.2, ISSN: 1462-4729

1264375 - A study of rubber flow in a mold during the tire shaping process using experiment and computer simulation
Automobile tyres consist of more than ten layers, including tread, belt, carcass, sidewall, etc. The outermost layer, known as the tread, plays an important role during driving as it comes in direct contact with the road. This tread has grooves with complicated shapes, which are formed by a mould during the shaping process. When the tread rubber does not fill the mould properly, tyre quality deteriorates crucially. As such, it is important to observe the flow of the tread rubber during the shaping process. To determine the flow of tread rubber in the mould, we conducted an experiment and computer simulation with white rubber strips inserted into specific areas of the tread. The white rubber strips showed detailed flow behaviour of the tread rubber visually in the mould during the shaping process. No significant flows were observed for rubber in the central area of each block of the mould, but more changes were found near the edges of each block. The strips of rubber below the grooves exhibited more significant changes as they were pressed down by the protruding area of the mould. Moreover, there was no flow of rubber between blocks in the mould. This implies the profile design of the extruded tread should match the mould profile and the volume of each block. The experiment and simulation had similar results, and the observations of rubber flow in the mould using simulation proved to be highly useful. (28 ref)
Polymer Testing, 61, Aug. 2017, p.258-268, ISSN: 0142-9418, DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2017.05.030
Sung Hyun Choi; Min-Young Lyu


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Save 20% on these titles until 30th September 2017.

Tyre Retreading

Precise guidelines for the practical compounding of different categories of rubber compounds used to make retread can be drawn from the book. A practical approach is also taken to describe the manufacturing technology used in tyre retreading. Find out more...

Recycling and Re-use of Waste Rubber

This comprehensive review, with extensive up-to-date referencing, covers all aspects of rubber recycling, from its world market to the many novel technologies and processes that have been developed to re-use the material to manufacture added-value products. Find out more...

Smart Rubbers: Synthesis and Applications

Research in the field of smart rubbers has drastically increased over the last few decades, which is predominantly due to the growing demand of and the need for improved materials for new applications. This book provides an attractive update in the field of smart rubbers that is relevant, interesting and understandable. Find out more...

Natural Rubber: From the Odyssey of the Hevea Tree to the Age of Transportation

This book presents the story of natural rubber, explaining its historical, social and scientific significance towards sustainable development. In the story, the unique elastic properties of natural rubber are explained and discussed in terms of modern science, and its influence toward the 21st century is analysed with sustainable development in mind. Find out more...