Conductive Polymers - November 2015
This month we are looking at conductive polymers. Most plastics are considered to be dielectric, however in the last few decades exciting research has been carried out relating to a special group of polymers that can conduct electricity. In 2000 the Nobel prize was awarded to Hideki Shirakawa and his colleagues for the invention of polyacetylene, and since that time great progress has been made in this field including the development of polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene, amongst others. Conducting polymers have widely been used in polymer-based electronics and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The list of applications are now very extensive and are proving to be a growth area of interest within the fields of photovoltaics, fuel cells, lighting and touch screen devices. They are also of great significance within the automotive and aerospace industries for their lightweighting properties. The medical applications are now becoming apparent with their high degree of biocompatibility lending them versatility for biosensing, implantable devices, tissue engineering and DNA sensing for gene detection.
Why not read some of the latest literature in this area? There is a selection of abstracts from the Polymer Library on this subject below.
These abstracts were highlighted in the MONTH Newsletter and found in the Polymer Library.
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1158307 - Transparent conductive film - a complex, yet booming market landscape
Transparent conductive sheets (on glass or other substrates) are used in a variety of applications including touch screens, displays, lighting and photovoltaics. This is already a large and well-established business. The non-display sector alone is set to generate 1.4bn US dollars in 2014 at the sheet level. This is a fast growing sector with a 6% CAGR between 2014 and 2024. The IDTechEx report "Transparent Conductive Films 2014-2024: Forecasts, Markets, Technologies" analyses all the key trends shaping the industry, assesses all the key existing and emerging solutions, provides detailed interview-based business intelligence on players and offers granular market forecasts.
Popular Plastics and Packaging, 59, No.2, Feb. 2014, p.20-21, ISSN: 0971-0078
1193013 - Stretchable polymer solar cell fibers
Power yourself up: a sweater made from solar cells! Stretchable and wearable fibres are shown to be highly efficient polymer solar cells. Their stable energy conversion efficiency variation is below 10% even after 1000 bending cycles or stretching under a strain of 30%. These fibres can easily be woven into fabric from which any type of clothing can be made. (24 ref)
Small, 11, No.6, 2015, p.675-680, ISSN: 1613-6810, DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400874
Zhitao Zhang; Zhibin Yang; Jue Deng; Ye Zhang; Guozhen Guan; Huisheng Peng
1178037 - Trend report. Engineering plastics: polyoxymethylene (polyacetal, POM)
A trend report on the POM industry is presented covering properties, product range, application in car interiors with low emissions, maximised toughness, electrical conductivity (carbon fibre- and carbon black-filled grades), safety in medical applications, detectability for application in the food industry, neutrality in direct contact with drinking water, friction-modified grades, and minimal shrinkage. Statistics on the global consumption of POM homopolymers and copolymers from 2002 to 2013 are given, together with experimental data on mechanical properties of various grades of these polymers. It is shown that further growth in the industry is expected to come from automotive, packaging and medical applications. Highly integrated solutions for replacing metals, e.g. in the automotive industry, is shown to be one of the main driving forces. The market has been growing at an annual average of 6-7% for a number of years.
Kunststoffe International, 104, No.10, p.54-58, ISSN: 1862-4243
Kirner H H
1205468 - Fabrication and microwave shielding properties of free standing polyaniline-carbon fiber thin sheets
Attempt has been made to synthesise polyaniline-carbon fibre (PANI-CF) composite via in-situ emulsion polymerisation using beta-naphthalene sulphonic acid (NSA) which acts as both surfactant as well as dopant. Free standing PANI-CF thin sheets are prepared which have electrical conductivity ~1.02 S/cm with improved mechanical strength and thermal stability. The scanning electron microscopy is used to study the surface morphology of the composites. Structural characterisation is done by using XRD. The dielectric attributes (epsilon*= epsilon' - iepsilon'') of PANI-CF sheets are calculated using experimental S parameters (S"1"1, S"1"2) by Nicolson Ross Wier equations. It has been demonstrated that these sheets show maximum shielding effectiveness (SE) of 31.9 dB at 12.4 GHz frequency at a thickness of 1.5 mm. Free standing PANI-CF sheets so prepared have a potential for X-band microwave absorber application. (49 ref)
Materials Chemistry and Physics, 160, No.1, 2015, p.87-95, ISSN: 0254-0584, DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2015.04.010
Seema Joon; Kumar R; Singh A P; Shukla R; Dhawan S K
1172192 - Purification of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, for biomedical applications
The synthesis of polyaniline with globular and nanotubular morphologies via oxidative polymerisation of the monomer in the presence of ammonium persulphate as oxidising agent followed by isolation by filtration and subsequent deprotonation, and their characterisation by SEM, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, WAXS and cytotoxicity studies is described. The effects of purification of the polymer via dissolution and reprecipitation from N-methyl pyrrolidone or concentrated sulphuric acid on morphology and cytotoxicity were evaluated and the results are discussed in terms of potential biomedical applications. 47 refs.
Synthetic Metals, 195, Sept. 2014, p.286-293, ISSN: 0379-6779, DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2014.06.020
Stejskal J; Hajna M; Kasparkova V; Humpolicek P; Zhigunov A; Trchova M
1175495 - A review: conducting polymers and their applications (OPEN ACCESS - FREE ACCESS TO FULL TEXT)
During the past two decades, both fundamental and applied research in conducting polymers like polyaniline, polyacetylene polythiophene and polypyrrole has grown enormously. Conducting polymers are unique due to its ease of synthesis, environmental stability and simple doping/dedoping chemistry. polyaniline is one of the most studied conducting polymers of the past 50 years. The most common chemical synthesis of polyaniline is by oxidative polymerisation with ammonium per sulphate as an oxidant. Conducting polymers owing to its ease of synthesis, remarkable environmental stability and high conductivity in the doped form has remained thoroughly studied due to their varied applications in fields like biological activity, drug release systems, rechargeable batteries and sensors. 160 Refs.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5, No.3, May-June 2014, p.383-412, ISSN: 0975-8585
Jangid N K; Chauhan N P S; Meghwal K; Ameta R; Punjabi P B
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